Your shopping cart is empty.
Jan 07, 2009
Do racehorses and Greyhound dogs exhibit a gender difference in running speed?
Equine and Comparative Exercise Physiology (2007), 4:135-140 Cambridge University Press
Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Box 5640, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, USA
At any level of competition, men run faster than women. Consequently, a male speed advantage is often presumed for other species. This assumption was tested in two animals bred for speed: horses and dogs. Results from Thoroughbred (TB), Standardbred (STB) and Greyhound (GH) races were analysed by ANOVA to compare the speeds of victorious males, neutered males (TB and STB only) and females. Separate analyses were run for shorter (TB: ≤ 1609 m, GH: 503 m) and longer (TB: >1609 m, GH: 603.5 m) TB and GH races. All STB races (trotters and pacers) were 1609 m. In TB races, intact males were 0.7% faster than females at ≤ 1609 m (n = 305; P < 0.01) and 1.4% faster at >1609 m (n = 194; P < 0.01). The speed of neutered males was equivalent to that of females at both distances. Gender accounted for 3.8 and 10.7% of the variance in speed at short and long distances, respectively. In STB pacers, intact males were 1.5% faster than females and gender accounted for 10.1% of the variance in speed (n = 96; P < 0.01). Gender was not a significant predictor of STB trotter (n = 95) or GH speed at 503 m (n = 146) or 603.5 m (n = 23). In conclusion, gender has a significant effect on speed of TBs and STB pacers. Although the effect size is small, it may be significant for racing; in a 7 furlong (1408 m) TB race, the 0.7% difference translates to an advantage of several lengths.
The presence of this badge signifies that this business has officially registered with the Art Storefronts Organization and has an established track record of selling art.
It also means that buyers can trust that they are buying from a legitimate business. Art sellers that conduct fraudulent activity or that receive numerous complaints from buyers will have this badge revoked. If you would like to file a complaint about this seller, please do so here.
This website provides a secure checkout with SSL encryption.
The Art Storefronts Organization has verified that this Art Seller has published information about the archival materials used to create their products in an effort to provide transparency to buyers.
All photography is printed on archival material, including glicee and specialist art papers. Watercolors need to be framed with art glass. Acrylics should not be hung in direct sunlight.
Become a member and be the first to receive new content and special promotions!
This is only visible to you because you are logged in and are authorized to manage this website. This message is not visible to other website visitors.
Click on any Image to continue
The above preview shows how to use the live preview on this website. The image displayed is just an example, and is not available for sale.
This means you can use the camera on your phone or tablet and superimpose any piece of art onto a wall inside of your home or business.
To use this feature, Just look for the "Live Preview AR" button when viewing any piece of art on this website!
Below, select which favorite lists you would like to save this product into.
SAVE 20% ON YOUR FIRST ORDER!
Enter your email below and we'll email you a 20% OFF Coupon right now!
This offer is valid for NEW CUSTOMERS only!