Your shopping cart is empty.
Nov 04, 2008
There is a paucity of scientific data on massage therapy (Lovas et al. 2002). The few studies performed using objective measurements have methodological flaws. Scientific evidence currently does not support nor refute claims made by massage advocates. Although many studies find that massage may be beneficial, researchers also discuss the lack of objective measures and scant evidenced based aspects of massage therapy and state that further investigation is required (Oppel 2000; Sedergreen 2000; Preyde 2000). Fontanarosa and Lundberg (1998) discuss the need for convincing data on safety and therapeutic efficacy and comment on problems with methodological quality in previous research. Tiidus (2000) noted that there is virtually no scientific information available on equine massage. His own studies on humans with DOMS found that massage does not alter whole limb blood flow. Importantly however, he used a Doppler ultrasound technique that did not measure localized blood flow specific to one muscle being massaged, and therefore failed to isolate the effect of massage. Ernst’s (1998) meta-analysis on massage therapy found that most of the research conducted to date had serious methodological flaws resulting in conflicting results. However, his conclusion was that most research suggests that post-exercise massage may alleviate symptoms of DOMS.
Increased blood flow to injured tissue provides oxygen and nutrients and removes breakdown products from the muscle (Newman 2002; McAllister 1995). However, attempts to demonstrate increased skeletal muscle blood flow during local skeletal muscle injury have failed primarily due to methodological errors because whole limb measurements have been made during the study of localized tissue responses. Whole limb measurement techniques lack sensitivity in the studies examining the effects of massage on muscle injury. MT validation for healing tissue requires measuring localized blood flow change to the muscle being massaged.
Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) peaks 24 to 48-hours following unaccustomed exercise (Vickers 2001). DOMS is due to the physical and biochemical muscle fiber degradation that occurs during and after the activity and is followed by a two to three-week repair period. During the repair phase there is a proliferation of myogenic stem cells and increased stem cell activation resulting in the differentiation of new muscle fibers. Massage therapy (MT) is an accepted and used primary treatment option for DOMS. However, MT lacks validity as a medical modality because its effects have yet to be scientifically established.
Beaton, L. J., Tarnopolsky, M. A., & Phillips, S. M. (2002). Variability in estimating eccentric contraction-induced muscle damage and inflammation in humans. Can J Appl Physiol 27, 516-526.
Bischoff, R. (1994). The satellite cell and muscle regeneration. In Myology, ed. Engel AG, a. F.-A. C., pp. 97-118. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Bossen, E. (2000). Muscle biopsy. In Diseases of skeletal muscle, ed. Wilkins, pp. 333-348. Lippincott Williams, Philadelphia.
Boushel, R. & Piantadosi, C. A. (2000). Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring muscle oxygenation. Acta Physiol Scand . 168, 615-622.
Ciurczak, E. W. & Drennen, J. K. (2002). Pharmaceutical and Medical Applications of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Marcel Dekker,Inc., New York.
Ernst, E. (1998). Does post-exercise massage treatment reduce delayed onset muscle soreness? A systematic review. Br.J.Sports Med. 32, 212-214.
Fontanarosa, P. B. & Lundberg, G. D. (1998). Alternative medicine meets science. JAMA 280, 1618-1619.
Hawke, T. J. & Garry, D. J. (2001). Myogenic satellite cells: physiology to molecular biology. J.Appl.Physiol 91, 534-551.
Lovas, J. M., Craig, A. R., Raison, R. L., Weston, K. M., Segal, Y. D., & Markus, M. R. (2002). The effects of massage therapy on the human immune response in healthy adults. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 6, 143-150.
Mancini, D. M., Bolinger, L., Li, H., Kendrick, K., Chance, B., & Wilson, J. R. (1994). Validation of near infrared spectroscopy in humans. J.Appl.Physiol 77, 2740-2747.
McAllister, R. M., Delp, M. D., Thayer, K. A., & Laughlin, M. H. (1995). Muscle blood flow during exercise in sedentary and trained hypothyroid rats. Am.J Physiol 269, H1949-H1954.
Newman, J. M., Rattigan, S., & Clark, M. G. (2002). Nutritive blood flow improves interstitial glucose and lactate exchange in perfused rat hindlimb. Am.J Physiol Heart Circ.Physiol 283, H186-H192.
Oppel, L. (2000). Is massage therapy genuinely effective? CMAJ. 163, 953-954.
Preyde, M. (2000). Effectiveness of massage therapy for subacute low-back pain: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ. 162, 1815-1820.
Pringle, J., Roberts, C., Art, T., & Lekeux, P. (2000). Assessment of muscle oxygenation in the horse by near infrared spectroscopy. Equine Vet.J. 32, 59-64.
Ramey, D. W. T. P. M. (2002). Massage Therapy in Horses: Assessing Its Effectiveness from Empirical Data in Humans and Animals. COMPENDIUM on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 24, 418-423.
Sahlin, K. (1992). Non-invasive measurements of O2 availability in human skeletal muscle with near-infrared spectroscopy. Int.J.Sports Med. 13 Suppl 1, S157-S160.
Sedergreen, C. (2000). Is massage therapy genuinely effective? CMAJ. 163, 953-954.
Shoemaker, J. K., Tiidus, P. M., & Mader, R. (1997). Failure of manual massage to alter limb blood flow: measures by Doppler ultrasound. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 29, 610-614.
Sowa, M. G. e. al. (1997). Noninvasive assessment of regional and temporal variations in tissue oxygenatoin by near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging. Appl.Spectrosc. 51, 143.
Taylor, D. E. & Simonson, S. G. (1996). Use of near-infrared spectroscopy to monitor tissue oxygenation. New Horiz. 4, 420-425.
Tiidus, P. M. (1999). Massage and ultrasound as therapeutic modalities in exercise-induced muscle damage. Can.J.Appl.Physiol 24, 267-278.
Tiidus, P. M. (2000). A Review of Human Massage Therapy: Assessing Effectiveness Primarily from Empirical Data in the Human Species. American Association of Equine Practitioners, AAEP Proceedings 46, 302-305.
Tiidus, P. M. & Shoemaker, J. K. (1995). Effleurage massage, muscle blood flow and long-term post-exercise strength recovery. Int.J.Sports Med. 16, 478-483.
Vickers, A. J. (2001). Time course of muscle soreness following different types of exercise. BMC.Musculoskelet.Disord. 2, 5. Part F: Facilities and Resources
This presence of this badge signifies that this business has officially registered with the Art Storefronts Organization and has an established track record of selling art.
It also means that buyers can trust that they are buying from a legitimate business. Art sellers that conduct fraudulent activity or that receive numerous complaints from buyers will have this badge revoked. If you would like to file a complaint about this seller, please do so here.
This website provides a secure checkout with SSL encryption.
The Art Storefronts Organization has verified that this Art Seller has published information about the archival materials used to create their products in an effort to provide transparency to buyers.
All photography is printed on archival material, including glicee and specialist art papers. Watercolors need to be framed with art glass. Acrylics should not be hung in direct sunlight.
Become a member and be the first to receive new content and special promotions!
This is only visible to you because you are logged in and are authorized to manage this website. This message is not visible to other website visitors.
Click on any Image to continue
The above preview shows how to use the live preview on this website. The image displayed is just an example, and is not available for sale.
This means you can use the camera on your phone or tablet and superimpose any piece of art onto a wall inside of your home or business.
To use this feature, Just look for the "Live Preview AR" button when viewing any piece of art on this website!
Below, select which favorite lists you would like to save this product into.
SAVE 20% ON YOUR FIRST ORDER!
Enter your email below and we'll email you a 20% OFF Coupon right now!
This offer is valid for NEW CUSTOMERS only!